Valar Dohaeris

[WARNING: There are spoilers from the premiere below. If you haven’t yet seen the premiere and don’t want to suffer through any spoilers, come back to this post after you’ve seen it.]

The long awaited season three premiere of Game of Thrones has arrived, leaving fans wondering: How long till season four? Heh, heh…

I hope you enjoyed the premiere! I was quite taken with it. In particular, I liked watching socially awkward penguin Jon Snow flub it up beyond the wall (seriously, if I were Mance Rayder, I would’ve killed that tokik). Absolutely loved Natalie Dormer as Margaery Tyrell getting down and dirty with the common folk. She’s tearing that role up. And seeing Joffrey in his little cage was priceless. He looks so consternated—like my cat when she brings me her string, and I remain sitting at the computer. “Wha—what are you doing?! Don’t you see the string? And me? And me and the string?!” Poor kitty! She remains ever hopeful.

My cat in a box that's much too small for her.

Click to enlarge.

One thing I’ve always liked is that Benioff and Weiss are never shy about including meta moments in the series. If you’ll recall, in my review of the season finale of last season, I commented on Tyrion’s scar. In the book, Tyrion’s scar is described as being horribly disfiguring (like, half his nose is missing). They couldn’t really make Peter Dinklage hideous, though. So what would they do? As I commented last time, I thought the scar was well done: Not too bad, but by no means insignificant. Lest there be any complaints, though (was there? Were there any fans of the books complaining that Tyrion’s scar wasn’t bad enough?), D&D had Cersei comment directly on his scar—saying herself that it’s not that bad.

Of course, my favorite scene from the show was Tyrion and Tywin. I’m not sure how widely known it is, but Tywin Lannister is, far and away, my favorite character from the book series. Every scene with him in it is outstanding, but the scenes with him and Tyrion together are the best the book series has to offer. The scene in yesterday’s premiere lived up to the hype (well, hype probably only generated and felt by me). Just wonderful. Tyrion is always so self-assure, and is always quite smart (on display with his brief meeting with Cersei in this one), but he is absolutely flummoxed by Tywin. Tywin is Tyrion’s kryptonite, and Charles Dance is playing him beautifully. I can’t wait to see more of this as the season progresses!

But back to the point of this blog, let us talk about the Dothraki in this episode. The Dothraki on Dany’s boat did some wonderful Dothraki groaning and retching as they lurched about the rhaggat eveth. That was all me.

Seriously, though, be prepared for almost no Dothraki whatsoever this season. It’s not gone (there’s at least one short scene with at least one full line of Dothraki), but Dothraki is last season’s news (well, and the season before that. I wish English had a dual…). This season we get to see the one language that fans of the book series actually wanted to see: High Valyrian.

But not yet.

In fact, the only High Valyrian in the premiere was the title (a call back to the title of last year’s finale). The language spoken in the scene with Daenerys, Kraznys and Missandei is a descendant of High Valyrian which I call various things: Astapori Valyrian, Ghiscari Valyrian, Low Valyrian, Valyrian… The name doesn’t matter so much as what it is, which I’ll endeavor to explain here.

According to ancient lore, the Ghiscari Empire fell some 5,000 years prior to the time of action in A Song of Ice and Fire. The empire warred five times with the Valyrian Empire, ultimately falling each time because the Valyrians had dragons. After the fifth war, the Valyrians decimated the old city of Ghis, burning down the buildings and salting the earth so that none would ever return.

So what happened then? Well, Ghiscari had been the language of the empire. As the diaspora spread, the Valyrian Empire took over (until its untimely fall several thousand years later), and the High Valyrian language supplanted the Ghiscari language.

Naturally, what would have happened is that the residents of Slaver’s Bay who spoke Ghiscari would have gradually moved over to High Valyrian, creolizing it along the way. It seems likely that an aristocratic class would have maintained a working knowledge of actual High Valyrian to use with emissaries from the Valyrian Empire, but the day-to-day language would have evolved in a way similar to French or Spanish (i.e. not like either of those languages, but evolving in the way that those languages evolved from Latin). I contend that this evolution would have been separate from the independent evolution of Valyrian in the Valyrian Freehold.

Of course, when it comes to a name, it seems likely they all would have referred to this as the same thing: Valyrian. It wouldn’t matter that denizens of Slaver’s Bay spoke in a different from those in the Valyrian Freehold—or that neither group spoke the same way as their ancestors: They’d all just be speaking Valyrian, if you asked them. (Recall that there was no such thing as High Valyrian until there was a Low Valyrian.)

Whether the varieties of Valyrian spoken in Astapor, Yunkai and Meereen are different enough to be considered separate languages or dialect of a single language is a bit academic. It seems to me that they would likely be able to communicate with one another, but that the language systems will have grown apart. Even if they were different languages, they could probably meet at some middle ground to communicate. Out of world, this could be referred to as Ghiscari Valyrian, but I think it’d be more accurate to refer to each one separately (i.e. Astapori Valyrian, Yunkish Valyrian and Meereenese Valyrian).

This explanation has served to produce the following point: What you hear in the premiere is Astapori Valyrian. It’s descended from High Valyrian, with the old Ghiscari language serving as a substrate or basilectal influence. It’s not mutually intelligible with High Valyrian, but it is close to some of the languages of the Free Cities, on account of separate but similar evolutionary changes (which we didn’t talk about here [and by “we” I mean “I”]).

To give you an example, here’s a line from last night’s episode (one of Missandei’s):

  • J’azanty ivetras ji vali nedhinki sizi zughilis vi murgho.
  • “The knight says that even the brave men fear death.”

And here’s what that sentence looks like in High Valyrian:

  • Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras.

This post is getting a bit long, so I better bring it to a close, but if you’d like to see some Dothraki, go check out the @GameOfThrones Twitter account today (edit: tomorrow at the time of publication. Oops!). Happy April Fools’!

[Edit: Bleh. I made a baby typo (should’ve been zūgusy not zūguksy, which is what it was originally. Unfortunately zūguksy is, in fact, a licit form of the verb, which was really throwing me for a loop, but it’s also one letter off from the correct form in this case, so it was obviously just a typo (was probably looking at the wrong field).]

Posted on March 31, 2013, in Episode Recaps and tagged , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 52 Comments.

  1. Ne multis, this is very exciting.

  2. High Valyrian has an OSV word order?? “Death (I’m guessing in the accusative) – the brave – even – fear – the knight – says”? And I think I see that Astapori uses prepositions instead of cases (vi murgho), so the Latin/Romance parallelism is evident :D Awesome! Kirimvos!

  3. Here’s something I notice: the Astapori 3pl suffix is -lis… and we know that’s true in High Valyrian too (it’s one of the only things we know about it!). But “fear” in this sentence is zūguksy, not *zūgilis or *zūgulis.

    So… does this mean High Valyrian has an “accusative-infinitive” construction for indirect statement, like Latin* does?

    * Yes yes, I’m mentioning Latin again. Quelle surprise!

  4. Other stuff:
    Astapori has a definite article (j’azanty). It may also have a zero article or contract it with prepositions (vi) à la Romance languages.
    Gh is /x/ or some other fricative, whereas in HV it sounds like /g/. I guess the harshness is a Ghiscari trait.
    Adjectives follow nouns: vali nedhinki, j’avra ? Westerosi.
    Anyone brave enough to transcribe the whole Unsullied scene so we can crack the code? :D

  5. My guesses:

    – The |i-| prefix in |ivetras| either marks transitivity (like the |-im| in Tok Pisin) or represents a clitic personal pronoun (“the knight he-says”). |Zughilis| has no such marker, so I’m leaning towards the transitivity. |Vi| doesn’t feel like an accusative to me; I’m assuming it’s an oblique construction like “they don’t fear of death.”

    – |Nēdyssy| is a nominalized adjective (“brave ones”) whose inflections already imply masculinity and plurality. The inflectionally impoverished Ghiscari Valyrian must explicitly state “men” as |vali|.

    – The |-i| ending in |vali nedhinki sizi| shows me that the |-ar| ending in |valar| is not the default Valyrian plural, but rather a categorical plural (“men in general” rather than “several men”). Judging from the meaning, though, |nēdyssy| should also be categorical plural. Maybe the ending takes quite different forms in different noun paradigms? Or maybe the |-i| plural is simply inherited from Ghiscari.

    – I’m assuming |sesīr|/|sizi| is responsible for the meaning “even”. Given that it seems to inflect for plural at least in the Ghiscari Valyrian, I suspect it is an adjective rather than an adverb. It could mean something like “themselves”, like Latin |ipse| (and Jovian |ipfe|) used in a similar way.

    – I haven’t seen the episode yet… can anyone tell me what |y| is pronounced like in Ghiscari Valyrian? I’ve always assumed it was [y] in High Valyrian at least.

    • Not going have time to go through this in detail, but much of this is accurate. Also: Your |’s are confusing! I was all like, “Where is he seeing all these ells?!” ;)

    • Judging from the meaning, though, |nēdyssy| should also be categorical plural. Maybe the ending takes quite different forms in different noun paradigms?

      Well, my theory, if correct, would make nēdyssy an accusative plural.

      • @ ML: Oh, as in »Morte fortes etiam viros timere eques censet«? Yeah, that might make sense…

        @ David: Any chance you might find the time later? ;o) I’m curious…

        • Yeah, in my reconstruction Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras would go Mortem timere etiam fortes eques dicit.

          Of course, if I’m wrong, and High Valyrian has no accusative-infinitive construction, my next guess would be that it does have different declension classes.

          I guess we’ll just have to wait until David can reveal more to us, or someone somehow manages to accurately transcribe the scene ;)

          • Ack, I meant to say “Mortem fortes etiam timere eques dicit“!

            I’ve been watching the Kraznys scene over and over (ew!) in the hopes of catching some more Valyrian. I’m getting very little. But let’s mention the obvious: “Unsullied” seems to be Do-Vokheddi or the like. That makes sense, since “no” appears to be do.

            • Hey, I don’t know if anyone here has found this blog post yet, but someone has gone full-bore in trying to transcribe all the language bits from the premiere. You take a look at it here and compare notes.

            • Very interesting! I found this one promising: “evatraji liva Vesterozi eskobhezi dovoxredi…”. Here he mentions the word “vesterozi” (which I guess hould be “vesterosi”) but doesn’t appear in the translation. I’m assuming the phrase is the typical “Tell the Westerosi whore…”.

              It would seem to be that the first word is actually two words, considering “J’azanty ivetras” “the knight says”, so probably it’s “ivetra ji liva vesterosi” or something like that. Also we find that MadLatinist was quite on the right track: “dovoxredi” is probably “Do-Vokheddi” considering the xr vs. kh discrepancy may I suggest “dovoghedhi”?

              Can’t wait to see the final transcript!

  6. Wow. This post made my week. Since the show was first announced I’d wondered about Valyrian, and since I don’t read spoilers it came as a pleasant surprise to hear it on the show! I’m especially pleased that there’s a distinction being made between High Valyrian and its debased offspring, and particularly that the former looks to be an inflected language (with vowel quantity to boot!).

    My observations: I agree with Zhallo above that nedyssy is a substantive adjective (with ji vali in the vulgar form meaning “men”). I disagree with him about valar not being the general plural though — valar is High Valyrian, whilst ji vali is vulgar so there’s no reason they have to share nominative masculine plural forms.

    I also had the same thought as Latinist did about an indirect speech construction — would explain the difference between the -ys ending (also seen in other nouns such as dracarys, or certain Valyrian names)and the -sy or -ssy.

    I wonder if vi murgho is an objective genitive the way it’s being used, and then that would call into question whether morghot is accusative or an objective genitive itself.

    • I wonder if vi murgho is an objective genitive the way it’s being used, and then that would call into question whether morghot is accusative or an objective genitive itself.

      It is definitely possible. Or it could be a simple change of expression, like Latin pavere aliquem vs. French avoir peur de quelque chose

  7. So will we be eventually able to learn valyrian if we wanted to?

  8. Omg fingers crossed X-D

  9. Just in case anyone has missed this video:

    There are bits of Astapori Valyrian throughout, and the language itself is actually discussed starting around 2:30.

  10. “Do you have a name, or must you draw a new one every day from some barrel”?
    “That is only for Unsullied,” the girl said. Then she realized the question had been asked in High Valyrian. Her eye went wide. “Oh.”
    “Your name is Oh?”
    Your Grace , forgive this one her outburst. Your slave’s name is Missandei, but …”
    — George R.R. Martin …. SoS

    What is ‘Oh’ in High Valyrian?

  11. Hmmm, how do we know she said ‘Oh’ in Ashai’i?

    I had wondered what this conversation sounded like in High Valyrian, I am wondering if it occurs on the show?
    Probably something shorter.

    • I apologize; this was a flippant response. But yes, this exchange occurs later on in the books from the point where we’re at in the show, and no, there’s no direct equivalent, so I was never called upon to translate it. A word like “oh”, in this case, is what we would call a disfluency in linguistics. They’re usually one of the last things to be added to a language, as, at least in my opinion, one really has to have a feel for how the language sounds and feels to produce authentic disfluencies. In the case of Valyrian (whether Low or High), I simply haven’t reached that point yet.

    • You can tell that “Oh” has been uttered in Ashai’i by the shadow sprites tugging at the speaker’s hair in malicious glee. Of course, it happens to be the Ashai’i expression for “I do herewith pledge mine own soul to thee, O Great hash-Shiiyaawhaaqanai Of The Neverending Sevenfold Torment”.

      Life under the Shadow is one big game of Don’t Say Oh.

  12. Oh! No I caught that about 30 seconds after I posted the response.

    “Oh”, in any language could be ‘Oh’!

    Well it was an interesting passage in the books because even tho Dany had been advised not to reveal , in the book, that she understood ‘Valyrian’ both High and Low, it is the first time George has her speaking High Valyrian. I think.
    ‘High’ had to be her ‘puppy’ language since Viserys was nearly 10 when he left KL and it seems impossible that Aerys II Targaryen’s master-of-arms (Ser Willem Darry) would not speak High Valyrian, plus surely some of Queen Rhaella’s attendants (some one would think, be Valyrians) would have come to Braavos with the escapees. So Dany would have surely learned High Valyrian from Viserys, but others from the court too.
    Since Dany and Viserys moved about in the Free Cities picking up ‘Low’ Valyrian (no matter how many kinds) would have been natural.
    Here is a question , for a civilization that existed for 5000 years and there seemed a Valyrian aristocracy.
    Would there have been ‘Court Valyrian’?
    Like imperial Japan’s koshitsu yogo?
    (I don’t even know if the Japanese imperials are still taught it? Thinking not.)
    I don’t even know in world history if there were any other ‘court language’.

    • Unfortunately (especially with Valyrian), a lot of this depends on the culture of the ancient civilization which George R. R. Martin either hasn’t fleshed out, or hasn’t shared, so there’s really only so much I can do. I can’t overstep my bounds.

  13. Hi David J. Petersen, I think that you was and are doing a great job with HBO. I was just wondering about a thing on you website here, not sure if any one elsa already asked it tho, but the signs on the top of the page, right below the white “Dothraki” text, where is is from? It looks really cool

  14. this has nothing to do with season 3 but what is the word for thunder? would it be something like hoof and beat or horse beat what is the word for hoof? do you have word for parts of the horse?

  15. I just wanted to say that I loved the Astapori Valyrian (AV) that was in last episode. Thank you also for posting a corresponding sentence in High Valyrian (HV). I did some “analysis”, as the amateur in linguistics I am.

    The knight says that even the brave men fear death.

    J’azanty ivetras ji vali nedhinki sizi zughilis vi murgho.
    (The) knight says the men brave even fear (the?/a?) death

    Morghot nēdyssy sesīr zūgusy azantys vestras.
    Death the brave even fear knight says

    It seems to me that in AV, ji, ot j’ in its contracted form would mean “the”, and “vi” would be “a/an” or another form of “the”. Their roots would be in Old Ghiscari, or whatever you want to call it, since HV does not appear to use articles in the same way.

    Based on this blog post I draw the conclusion that words like evatraji, i’ivetra, ivetras in AV have their roots in the word “vestras” of HV, and translates as “to speak, to tell” in different conjugations. Azanty – azantys would mean knight, while sizi – sesir is “even”, based on its relative shortness.

    Another thing I picked up on was that AV seems to have reformed some of the words in HV to “fit into the slots” of the Ghiscari language. For example, “ji vali nedhinki” I think corresponds to “nedyssy”. Based on words like “valar” (all men/every man/everyone) and “valonqar” (little brother, perhaps with “val-” as the stem meaning “man” that forms “valon”, brother, and -qar as the suffix that denotes “little” or “younger”) “ji vali” would mean “the men”. Nedhinki is the adjective “brave”, while nedyssy would be a plural noun based on a verb, i.e. “the brave (ones)”. Not sure if I use the correct linguistic terms, but I hope you understand me. So HV gets the point across with only one word, although that word is more ‘grammatically complex’ than the AV correspondent.

    Something I found interesting about “zughilis”, which I assume is the verb “fear” in the 3rd person plural, is that it appears to have been adjusted the more common (?) “-is” ending for this conjugation in HV. This is just based on “morghulis” and “dohaeris”, but “zugusy” seems to be an irregular verb, that the Ghiscari have rationalized away in favor of a more common way of conjugating verbs.

    As you can tell, I’m really interested in Valyrian and learning more about it, especially High Valyrian. For some time I’ve wondered what “fire” is in High Valyrian, and I’ve had a theory of it being something akin to “aerys”, “arys” or “erys”, for two reasons: 1. It’s a common feature in Targaryen names, and 2. “dracarys” means “dragonfire”, and since one would associate “drac-” with “dragon”, I think that “arys” is connected to “fire” in some way. If you’re not completely forbidden to disclose this, I’d really like to know.

    • Hey Joel,

      Most of your conclusions are right here. I can tell you that nothing is irregular in either the AV or the HV sentence; all the forms in evidence there are as they would be ordinarily.

      On your last question, drakarys (respelled for the sake of consistency) is the word for “dragon fire” (as opposed to regular fire), but it’s not a compound. Compounds are all but nonexistent in HV. Furthermore, the word for “dragon” is unrelated. The element you find in common is something like “-le” in English (cf. “little”, “battle”, “riddle”, “middle”, “bottle”, “rattle”, etc.). It doesn’t mean anything in the usual sense. In fact, the common element here is -ys, which is a nominal ending.

      When GRRM is coining words in one of his languages, he doesn’t build meaning up: he uses a strategy to build words that have phonological commonalities. This is why just about all HV names end in -ys, -or, -ar, -on or -es. Everything else relies on using a similar set of consonants and vowels to produce roots, usually with a greater number at the beginning of the word than the middle (thus Daenerys is expected, but Raenedys isn’t one you’d expect from GRRM, even though it would be licit in my form of HV).

      At any rate, this type of compounding simply wouldn’t make sense in HV, and I also think there’s a better explanation for what’s going on. Plus, we’ve already seen that there are at least two types of fire that have crucial differences in the series (regular fire and wild fire); I don’t think it’s a stretch to have a unique lexeme for dragon’s fire versus regular fire.

      • Thanks for replying! Very interesting that High Valyrian does not have compund words. Does that mean they coin a new word for every new thing they need to describe thorugh their language? For example, if Valyrians were, say, to come upon what we would call “river boats” when they conquered the lands around the Rhoyne (Valyria doesn’t have many rivers does it?) would they instead of taking the word for river and boat and combine it, create a distinct new word? Is this something that happens in languages in our world?

        Here’s another thought about what you said about nominal endings, assuming “nominal” mean that it has to do with noun or names. Would “azantar” be the word for “all knights/every knight/knights in general”? And is “valys” the word for “(the) man”?

        Since you didn’t say what fire actually is in High Valyrian, I take it you’re not allowed to say anything about AV or HV except what has already been on the show. Oh well. Maybe you could give us another corresponding sentence then? I transcribed this sentence with some help from the blog post (

        Kraznys: Ivetras ji reni ji oghal delin kosko mekho voslibas es varoghilis – negiji boja piten kavesa.

        Missandei: “They will stand until they drop – such is their obedience.”

        My guesses:

        ji reni – they
        ji oghal – stand?
        delin – will?
        kosko – here
        mekho – until
        voslibas – fatigued, tired
        es – and, or some other preposition
        varoghilis – fall down, collapse, drop

        Based on the two sentences you gave in you post, I saw these relations betweeen Astapori and High Valyrian:

        mor → mur
        ghot → gho
        esir → izi
        yssy → hinki
        gusy → ghilis
        tys → ty
        ve → ive
        str → tr

        There were so many words in Kraznys line that Missandei must have skipped some in her translation, and very few of them have a structure similar to the words in the sentence you gave in your post, which made it very hard to guess their High Valyrian counterparts. The only one I have a faint idea of what it could be in High Valyrian is “varoghilis”, which could be “varogusy”. You could help me though… please?

        • Since “ji vali” probably ment “men” (compare: valar)
          the “ji” would appear to be something like “the” perhaps, thus “stand” would not likely be represented by “ji oghal”. In the example “ivetras” and “zughilis” are most likely to resemble verbs so id search something with an as/is ending for stand.

          I made an own transcription of what i thought i heard wich renderd in the following phrase

          Ivetras ji reni ji oghal kelvinkosko meshoros livas eva rughilis – Meghisi bujar pitenkavesa.


          The last sentence in the scene krazy sais according to me: “Ivetras ji liva vesterosi, ekisa eva vaneko” = “Tell the Western whore she has until tomorrow”

          so I’d say eva=until, the livas i found in your example sentence seems a little off so it could be wrong, or mayby krazys threw in an instult there also…

          A few cents from my side :)

          • Oh, I now see that I have repeted some of the things you have adressed in an earlier post. But hey, repetitio est mater studiorum ;)

            • Yes, I was rather unsure about “ji oghal”, since “ji” is quite certainly “the” or something similar. My other candidate for “stand” was “delin” or “kelvin” as you transcribe it. But “delin” or “delinkosko” doesn’t sound like a verb either. Kosko could be an preposition, conjuction or adverb, which also goes for mokho/mocho. The only word that sounds like a verb to me based on what we know is “varoghilis” or “rughilis”. Which is weird in a sentence that should have no object and two – possibly three – verbs ( “drop” and “will stand” vs “will” and “stand” separated). Ji reni, jireni or j’reni remains my candidate for “they”, since I find it likely that the word for “the” would form part of “they”. “ji boja” could be “their”, like in “their obedience”.

              If I were to go with my instinct on just what Kraznys said, my interpretation of the structure of the sentence would be

              Tell (her) they [def. noun 1] [verb] [preposition/conjunction] [adverb] [verb] [preposition/conjunction] [verb]

              which makes it very very hard to fit in “They will stand until they drop”. Something like “They the vigil will stand until [they] finally are exhausted and drop” could fit though.

  16. Hey David, what does “Mastas, valar urneebis” mean? “Later, all men must sleep”? (That’s just a hunch) :D

  17. Quote from above
    Kraznys: Ivetras ji reni ji oghal delin kosko mekho voslibas es varoghilis – negiji boja piten kavesa.

    Missandei: “They will stand until they drop – such is their obedience.”

    My guesses:(JOEL W)

    ji reni – they
    ji oghal – stand?
    delin – will?
    kosko – here
    mekho – until
    voslibas – fatigued, tired
    es – and, or some other preposition
    varoghilis – fall down, collapse, drop

    For comparison I put a part of my take on the first sentence also:
    eskobezi dovoghedi, e jutiz mitovi ji imbar doghavodore jetadosh=“The Unsullied have stood for a day and a night with no food or water.”

    Stand/stood is found i both translations, theres no really obvious pair here but the eskobezi/kosko duo would be my guess.

  18. My brain can no longer analyse this any further… But the eskobezi – kosko match is clever, although that would imply the word order “stood the Unsullied” i.e. verb-subject which seems unlikely.

    Does anyone else find it funny that Missandei (Natalie Emmanuel) sounds really English when she says that first line? Like something from the BBC radio year 1950, a news reporter comes on with the headline “In Astapor, the Unsullied have stood for a day and a night with no food or water” Okay, maybe I’m exaggregating, but still…

    • Hmm, I left out a bit to which there was no translation but maybe the context suffered from that.

      (Do jughiz, ivetras ji liva vesterosi) eskobezi dovoghedi-

      Dunno if it changes anything but could one argue for something along the lines of “the standing unsullied”?

      Oh, Attenborough can retire anytime now, we’ve found a suitable heir ;)

      • I was aware that the sentence began that way, so no worries. I just realized that dovoghedi, which likely means the Unsullied, has the same negation you can hear in “dozvagise!” (which clearly means “no, not truly” or “of course not!”). “Voghedi” would thus be the word for “sullied, tarnished” in Astapori Valyrian. I tried to extrapolate this to High Valyrian:

        ne-dhinki | vo-ghedi
        ne-dyssy | vo-gaety

        Could “vogaety” or be the word for “sullied, tarnished” in High Valyrian? Other options would be “vogaedy”, “vogety” and “vogedy” but to be honest I like “vogaety” more.

        If only there was one more sentence in High Valyrian… a nerd can dream.

  19. Yes, there are also many do-s in the no food and water sentence, to many even :P

    The word nedyssy appears to convey the entity of “ji vali nedhinki”, as in brave men/ones. So nedyssy is likely to have a diffrent root-form. But backtracked word could be correct for its form.

  20. OK, I’ve finally made an attempt at a transcription. Go comment!

  21. Any chance that you could write up a primer for High Valyrian since you are effectively creating it? Would be nice to use it as well as Tolkien elvish for my D&D games.

  22. That awkward moment when raznys realizes dany speaks valyrian and he remembers all the times he insulted her

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